This thread will cover the weapons used by minor combatants in the Pacific War. While it is unlikely that these units will ever be featured in FH, I feel that I should post them for the sake of completeness.
Forces to be covered:
National Armies: Thailand French Indochina Mongolia Portugal Germany Italy
Collaborationist Regime forces: Manchukuo Mengjiang Republic of China-Nanjing (Wang Jingwei Government) East Hebei Autonomous Council State of Burma (Ba Maw regime) Second Republic of the Philippines Provisional Government of Free India (Azad Hind) Empire of Vietnam Kingdom of Cambodia
Resistance Forces: Free Thai Forces Malayan People's Anti-Japanese Army Viet Minh "Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels" (Papua New Guinea resistance) Hukbalahap (Filipino communist resistance) Filipino Resistance Chinese Resistance (many organizations) Hong Kong resistance Korean Liberation Army
Other armed groups: Chinese Communists Chinese warlord groups
Thailand Thailand first entered World War 2 by invading French Indochina in October 1940, starting a war that would last until May 1941. This war resulted in a Thai victory, as France ceded disputed territories to Thailand.
On December 8, 1941, Japanese forces invaded Thailand. After several days of fighting, Thailand surrendered and allied itself with the Japanese. Thailand attempted to declare war on the United States but the Thai ambassador refused to deliver the message. The United States thereby refrained from declaring war on Thailand. Thai forces took part in the invasion of Burma in May 1942, annexing the Shan States to Thailand.
A group of Thai soldiers during the Second World War
The Thai Army used the following infantry weapons:
Rama VI rifle (Thai copy of German Mauser Gewehr 98) Mauser Gewehr 98 rifle Type 38 Arisaka rifle Lee-Enfield SMLE Mk. III rifle Madsen M25 light machine gun Type 96 light machine gun Browning M1917 machine gun Vickers .303 machine gun Type 97 20mm antitank rifle Colt M1908 .38cal pistol Luger P08 pistol Mauser C96 pistol Star B 9mm pistol (Spanish)
Spanish-made Star B 9mm pistol Thai Infantry Sergeant Thai Infantry Officer Thai Tank Crewman Thai forces used pith helmets, or the French Adrian helmet Chakra emblem used on all Thai helmets and caps. French Indochina After the establishment of the Vichy government in 1940, Japan concluded a treaty which allowed for 6000 Japanese troops to be stationed in French Indochina. Instead, the Japanese attempted to move many times that number into the country, and French forces resisted. After several days of fighting, Japanese troops were victorious and France was forced to allow Japanese troops free passage through Indochina.
Japanese semi-occupation allowed French administration to continue to function until March 1945 when, fearing a Gaullist takeover and French Indochina's swing to the Allied column, Japanese forces overthrew the French colonial government. After some fighting most French units surrendered and others fled into the mountains. One group of 5700 men fought its way to China and linked up with Chinese Nationalist forces. The Japanese declared Vietnam an independent state, but this would be short lived, lasting only until the Japanese surrender in August 1945.
The French Indochina Army used the following infantry weapons:
Berthier 1916 rifle Lebel 1886/M93 rifle Mousqueton M1892 carbine MAC FM 1924/M29 light machine gun Hotchkiss 1914 machine gun Ruby pistol M1915 frag grenade M1892 revolver Mongolia Mongolia was under communist rule at this time, and a small force of around 1600 Mongolians participated in the Battle of Khalkhin Gol in 1939. Mongolia's army consisted of primarily horse and camel mounted cavalry. Mongolian forces would not see combat again until 16,000 troops participated in Operation August Storm in 1945. Mongolia was also used as a staging area for Russian forces.
Although some armored vehicles were available, the basic unit of maneuver for the Mongolian armed forces was the 2,000 man cavalry regiment.
The Mongolian People's Army used the following infantry weapons:
unidentified rifles, presumable Nagant M91/30 or M91/38 carbines unidentified revolvers, presumably Nagant M1895 heavy use of cavary sabres as secondary weapons DP light machine gun Maxim machine gun
Typical Mongolian cavalry saber
Information on uniforms is nowhere to be found.
Portugal Portugal had declared its neutrality throughout the war. In December 1941, Australian and Dutch forces were preparing to defend Dutch Timor from a potential Japanese invasion. The Portuguese refused to cooperate and insisted that their neutrality plus the deployment of an additional 800 troops would protect them. To ensure a complete defense of the island, Australian and Dutch troops invaded and occupied Portuguese East Timor on December 17. The Portuguese protested, but the 500 Portuguese Army soldiers garrisoned in the colony offered no resistance.
The Japanese invaded the island on February 19, 1942. Heavy fighting took place as Dutch and Australian troops were driven back. Portuguese troops stayed on the sidelines. After the Japanese occupied Timor, Portuguese colonial authorities remained in nominal control. Some Portuguese troops joined the Allied guerilla campaign in the mountains.
Macau had been left along until 1943, when Japanese forces occupied Macao and disarmed the Portuguese garrison. Again the Portuguese offered no resistance.
The Portuguese colony of Goa was used as a center of espionage. German and Italian ships transmitted Allied shipping movements to German and Japanese submarines operating in the Indian Ocean. In 1943, in Operation Boarding Party, British commandos sank one German ship and caused several German and Italian ships to be scuttled.
The Portuguese Army used the following infantry weapons:
Mauser Kar98k rifle MP-34 submachine gun Madsen light machine gun
Germany German involvement in the Pacific War was limited to a U-boat campaign in the Indian Ocean (Operation Monsun), transfer of technology by submarine and several raids by German commerce raiders.
Italy Italian involvement was even more limited, limited to a few submarines used as transports to exchange technology with the Japanese.
Manchukuo A Japanese puppet state established in Manchuria in 1932. The government was made up of former Qing Dynasty officials and Emperor Puyi was the leader.
The Manchukuo Army had over 110,000 men by 1933, and over 200,000 by 1944. However, these were poorly equipped, with little armor support. In 1945, the army was made of 8 infantry divisions and 7 horse cavalry divisions.
Manchukuo horse cavalry in the 1930s
Manchukuo forces fought during the battle of Khalkhin Gol and the Sino-Japanese war but did not contribute much to the conflict. They also fought the Soviets during Operation August Storm. The primary focus of the Manchukuo armed forces, however, was on counter-partisan operations within Manchuria.
The Manchukuo Imperial Army used the following infantry weapons:
Type 38 Arisaka rifle Type 99 rifle Type 38 cavalry rifle Type 11 light machine gun ZB vz.26 light machine gun (captured from the Chinese) Type 96 light machine gun Type 3 heavy machine gun Type 92 heavy machine gun Type 10 knee mortar Stielhandgranate stick grenades (captured from the Chinese)
Manchukuo troops with a Type 92 machine gun on a training exercise
Mengjiang was a Japanese puppet state created in Inner Mongolia in 1935 under Prince Demchugdongrub. In 1940 it would become under the authority of Wang Jingwei's government.
Mengjiang forces were crushed by Chinese troops in the Suiyan Campaign in 1936. After this disaster, the army was rebuilt into a force of 20,000 men, divided into 8 divisions of horse cavalry.
The Mengjiang army participated in Operation Chahar and the capture of Suiyan province in 1937, as well as the Battle of Taiyuan. Mengjiang forces offered light resistance to Soviet and Mongolian troops during Operation August Storm. Once again, the primary mission was counter-partisan warfare.
The Mengjiang National Army used the following infantry weapons:
ZB vz.26 light machine gun Sig. Model 1930 submachine gun Mongol cavalry sabers
Republic of China-Nanjing
The Chinese collaborationists of the Wang Jingwei Government provided an umbrella for large numbers of opportunistic warlord forces which had sided with the Japanese since the early 1930s. In 1938, the Chinese Collaborationist forces numbered 78,000 men and this rose to 140,000 by 1940. By 1943, this was 345,000. About 62% of troops were former soldiers in the National Revolutionary Army. All told, according to Chinese sources around 1,860,000 Chinese served in collaborationist armed forces.
Collaborationist troops were considered unreliable and often passed information to Chinese nationalist or resistance forces. Many surrendered and switched sides when fighting against Chinese nationalist forces.
East Hebei Autonomous Council
The East Hebei Autonomous Council declared its independence in 1935. The East Hopei Army was originally a force designed to serve as a peacekeeping force between the Japanese and Chinese. In 1937, with war breaking out again, the Japanese turned the force into a surrogate army of 18,000 men.
The East Hopei Army fought at the Marco Polo Bridge and at the battle of Beiping-Tianjin. In July 1937 they revolted in an incident known as the Tungchow Mutiny. After the revolt was put down, the East Hopei Army was disbanded and the East Hebei Autonomous Council folded into the Wang Jingwei government.
The East Hopei army was equipped entirely with rifles and sidearms, with no automatic weapons.
State of Burma
In 1943, the Japanese created a puppet state in Burma under Ba Maw. The Burma National Army had a peak strength of 11,000 men.
The force took part in little fighting until 1945. That March, the BNA was marched to the frontline to fight advancing Allied forces. Instead, the BNA switched sides and joined the Allies, fighting against Japanese forces.
Second Republic of the Philippines
The Japanese puppet government in the Philippines, which lasted from 1943 to 1945. The government was kept under strict government control but maintained its own paramilitary forces, called the Makapili (Makabayan Katipunan Ñg Mga Pilipino or Alliance of Philippine Patriots), of around 5,000 men.
Provisional Government of Free India (Azad Hind)
The Azad Hind movement under Subhas Chandra Bose thought they could bring about the independence of India from British rule by siding with the Japanese. The government's armed forces, called the Indian National Army, were formed in 1942 and reached a peak size of 43,000.
Female INA soldier in training
The troops were recruited primarily from Indian POWs. Some men who refused to join were shot. The INA was involved in heavy fighting in the Burma theater from 1943 to 1945. The unit was equipped with Commonwealth weapons captured in Singapore.
The Indian National Army used the following infantry weapons:
SMLE Mk.III rife Bren light machine gun Vickers machine gun Boys antitank rifle Mills bomb (primarily carried by NCOs) ...
Empire of Vietnam
The Empire of Vietnam under Bao Dai was a puppet government set up in March 1945 after the Japanese overthrow of the French colonial authorities. The government lasted until August, when it was overthrown by the Viet Minh.
Kingdom of Cambodia
Cambodia was declared independent at the same time as Vietnam. In August, Allied forces took Pnom Penh without opposition and jailed the government's leaders.
Free Thai Movement Many Thais inside and outside of the government did not approve of their government's sucking up to the Japanese, and resistance groups began to form. These supplied plenty of information to the OSS, and by 1945 an uprising was being planned. They were supplied with weapons by the OSS and staged several attacks against Japanese soldiers, however Japan surrendered before a national uprising could take place.
Malayan People's Anti-Japanese Army
The MPAJA was an ethnic Chinese communist resistance movement in Malaya. The group was originally armed and trained by the British as a "stay behind" movement and they formed an early resistance network after the fall of Malaya. After the fall of Singapore, the MPAJA was on its own with limited British contact until weapons drops were made possible in 1945. The MPAJA would lead an unsuccessful insurgency against the British after the war.
The Viet Minh was a Vietnamese communist movement founded in 1941, to fight both the Vichy French and Japanese. The Viet Minh would control large swaths of the Vietnamese interior, and received weapons from both the Americans and the Chinese.
"Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels" (Papua New Guinea resistance)
Christmas Day, 1942. An Australian soldier, George "Dick" Whittington, is aided by Papuan orderly Raphael Oimbari, at the Battle of Buna-Gona.Whittington died in February 1943 from the effects of bush typhus.
"Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels" was the Australian nickname for Papuan natives who cared for wounded Australian troops and helped downed airmen during the New Guinea Campaign.
Hukbalahap (Filipino communist resistance)
Around 15-20,000 Filipinos joined the communist resistance, primarily on northern Luzon. They obtained weapons captured from or abandoned by Japanese, American and Filipino sources. They continued their rebellion to fight against the Filipino government after 1945.
A higher proportion of Filipinos were involved in resistance than any other nation in World War 2. An estimated 260,000 men were fighting the Japanese during the occupation.
The resistance was begun by American and Filipino troops that refused to surrender after the fall of the Philippines in 1942.
Guerilla groups played a major role in the reconquest of the Philippines in 1944-1945.
Traditional Filipino Bolo knife
Chinese Resistance (many organizations)
China had a myriad of resistance organizations, most of them poorly documented. Thousands of Chinese, many of them former warlords, fought as guerillas against the Japanese invaders. These units used whatever weapons they could obtain. Hong Kong resistance
At least two urban guerilla movements were formed in Hong Kong: The communist Gangjiu Da Dui Guerillas and the Dongjiang Guerillas. Both sometimes attacked Japanese forces, and rescued downed Allied airmen and protected other people wanted by the Japanese.
Korean Liberation Army
The Korean Liberation Army was the armed force of the Korean government-in-exile in China. Korea had been under Japanese occupation since 1910. Established in 1941, the KLA organized the many Korean guerilla forces into a unified command.
The KLA originally was sponsored by the Chinese. By August 1945, the KLA was receiving aid from the OSS, but the Japanese surrendered before OSS-trained forces could be sent into combat.
Some Korean guerillas were communist and received covert training inside the Soviet Union. Kim Il-Sung was a commander of one of these units.
This concludes my threads on Pacific War infantry weapons.
I'm going to take a break for a little bit. I'm deciding whether or not to do aircraft, ground vehicles and ships for each major nation.
Good research there Megaraptor, quite impressed that you got so much even for such small countries.
I'm going to take a break for a little bit. I'm deciding whether or not to do aircraft, ground vehicles and ships for each major nation.
Please?! If not all at least the major factions. And I think you can scrub ships out for now.
I take what n0e says way too seriously
9th April 2005
what's wrong with ships!?
'[130pz.Kading;4756755']what's wrong with ships!?
I think what he's referring to are current insurmountable bugs involving large ships in the BF2 engine in online play.
I take what n0e says way too seriously
9th April 2005
RABBLE RABBLE RABBLE RABBLE!! so? cant we just learn something without it having a point? im pretty sure FH2 wont have mongolians in it, so why not do some research into ships?
Nice, but how about the communist chinese army?
How about Yunnan, Sinkiang and Guanxi, i played so much HoI2.
And the Norwegian army, please, my lord :D I feel kinda nubish for asking this, as i`m Norwegian myself, but I don`t know very much about weapons etc....only flamethrowers...
How many combat dit Norway see in the Pacific? ;)
Chinese Communist Forces
The Communists had been engaged in civil war with the Chinese Nationalist government since the late 1920s. In 1937, the concluded a nominal truce with the Kuomintang in order to fight the Japanese.
The Communists fought what was primarily a guerrilla campaign in northern China, in the Japanese rear areas. While the CCP was active from 1937 to 1942, even fighting major battles at Pingxingguan in 1937 and the Hundred Regiments Offensive in 1940, the CCP began to contribute less and less to the war effort while growing in strength. Fighting also broke out with the Kuomintang despite the truce that was nominally in place, most notable the Battle of Wannan in 1941. After this, there was little cooperation between the Kuomintang and CCP. The CCP began to gain much popular support amongst the people, especially since their troops didn't loot the countryside for food like many Kuomintang units. By 1945, the CCP had increased its armed forces from 30,000 to 1.7 million.
The Chinese communist forces received military aid from the Soviet Union. They also utilized Chinese Nationalist and captured Japanese equipment. After the war, they received massive stocks of Japanese weapons which had been captured by the Soviet Union during Operation August Storm.
Weapons of the Chinese People's Liberation Army included:
Nagant M91/30 rifle (from USSR) Chiang kai-Shek rifle (from Chinese Nationalists) Hanyang 88 rifle (from Chinese Nationalists) Kar98K (from Chinese Nationalists) SVT-38/SVT-40 (from USSR) Type 38 Arisaka rifle (captured from Japanese) Type 99 Arisaka rifle (captured from Japanese) Type 38 cavalry rifle (captured from Japanese) Type 44 cavalry rifle (captured from Japanese) PPD-40 SMG (from USSR) PPsH-41 SMG (from USSR) PPS-43 SMG (from USSR) ZB vz.26 LMG (from Chinese Nationalists) Type 24 HMG (from Chinese Nationalists) MG-34 MG (from Chinese Nationalists) Type 11 LMG (captured from Japanese) Type 96 LMG (captured from Japanese) Type 97 LMG (captured from Japanese) Type 99 LMG (captured from Japanese) DP 1928 LMG (from USSR) Maxim M1910 HMG (from USSR) PTRD antitank rifle (from USSR) PTRS antintak rifle (from USSR) DShk 1938 HMG (from USSR) Type 92 HMG (captured from Japanese) Browning Hi-Power pistol (from Chinese Nationalists) Nambu 14 pistol (captured from Japanese) Type 26 revolver (captured from Japanese) Type 94 pistol (captured from Japanese) Mauser C96 pistol (from Chinese Nationalists) TT-33 pistol (from USSR) Nagant M1895 revolver (from USSR) Model 24 stick grenade (from Chinese Nationalists) F1 frag grenade (from USSR) RGD-33 frag grenade (from USSR)
(Please note, I'm not entirely sure when all this stuff was supplied and some of the Russian stuff may well have been supplied after the Japanese surrender in 1945. I'm not totally certain.)
Chinese Warlords In addition to the aforementioned factions, Chinese warlords with their own private militias still controlled some parts of China. Most warlords had been absorbed into the Chinese Nationalist army in 1928 by the Kuomintang but a few survived into the 1930s, such as the Yunnan clique, Guangxi Army, Shanxi clique and the Ma clique.
Some of these forces such as the Guangxi Army which came from affluent areas, were equipped with modern weapons and trained by foreign mercenaries. However, most warlord forces were generally equipped with a variety of crappy secondhand weapons filched from the Kuomintang, crappy secondhand captured Japanese weapons, traditional Chinese weapons such as the Dadao sword, and whatever other assorted crap they could come up with. Once again, horse cavalry units were common, especially with the Ma clique.