There are 15 different categories of cheese:
Brie Blue Cheddar Diet Fedda Grating Grueyer Mexican Mozarella Fondue smoked Stinky Swiss Extras
There are many different cheeses in each gourp (in order of the types list) 30 49 16 22 12 10 6 6 3 12 7 58 15 23 35 This amounts to a total of approximately 306 different cheeses. There are also differnet consistancies of cheese: Soft Semi-soft Semi-hard Hard Extra creamy Crumbly Crumbly has the least number of cheeses, only 2 such as Danish blue. Cheese is also made from a number of different milks, goats milk, sheep, buffalo, Oxen, veggie.
There are multiple materials requierd to make cheese, such as cheese cloth and a thermometer and butter muslin.
for more information visit cheese.com
History of cheese
heese is one of the most varied and subtle foods in the world. In taste cheese can be bland, buttery, innocuous, rich, creamy, pungent, sharp, salty or lightly delicate. In texture it can be hard enough to chip off in flakes, so soft and runny that it needs to be eaten with a spoon or at any one of a dozen points of softness and firmness between these two extremes. In aroma, cheese can be rank and overpowering enough to turn the stomach of the strongest man (and still be eaten with relish by devotees), delicately aromatic or virtually unnoticeable. Cheese can serve as the perfect companion for wines, a superbly satisfying finale to a gourmet meal or simply as a basic nourishing foodstuff for family snacks.
The Start Archaeologists have discovered that as far back as 6000 BC cheese had been made from cow's and goat's milk and stored in tall jars. Egyptian tomb murals of 2000 BC show butter and cheese being made, and other murals which show milk being stored in skin bags suspended from poles demonstrate a knowledge of dairy husbandry at that time.
It is likely that nomadic tribes of Central Asia found animal skin bags a useful way to carry milk on animal backs when on the move. Fermentation of the milk sugars would cause the milk to curdle and the swaying motion would break up the curd to provide a refreshing whey drink. The curds would then be removed, drained and lightly salted to provide a tasty and nourishing high protein food, i.e. a welcome supplement to meat protein.
Cheesemaking, thus, gradually evolved from two main streams. The first was the liquid fermented milks such as yoghurt, koumiss and kefir. The second through allowing the milk to acidify to form curds and whey. Whey could then be drained either through perforated earthenware bowls or through woven reed baskets or similar material. The Legend Most authorities consider that cheese was first made in the Middle East. The earliest type was a form of sour milk which came into being when it was discovered that domesticated animals could be milked. A legendary story has it that cheese was 'discovered' by an unknown Arab nomad. He is said to have filled a saddlebag with milk to sustain him on a journey across the desert by horse. After several hours riding he stopped to quench his thirst, only to find that the milk had separated into a pale watery liquid and solid white lumps. Because the saddlebag, which was made from the stomach of a young animal, contained a coagulating enzyme known as rennin, the milk had been effectively separated into curds and whey by the combination of the rennin, the hot sun and the galloping motions of the horse. The nomad, unconcerned with technical details, found the whey drinkable and the curds edible. The Jews From Biblical sources we learn that when David escaped across the River Jordan he was fed with 'cheese of kine' (cows) (2 Samuel 17:29), and it is said that he presented ten cheeses to the captain of the army drawn up to do battle with Saul (1 Samuel 17:18). Indeed, records show that there was at one time a location near Jerusalem called 'The Valley of the Cheesemakers'. Clearly, skills had been developed to preserve milk either as an acid-curd based cheese or as a range of lactic cheeses, and fermented milks such as today's unsweetened natural yoghurt. Roman Cheesemaking Learning these techniques, the Romans with their characteristic efficiency were quick to develop cheesemaking to a fine art. Cheesemaking was done with skill and knowledge and reached a high standard. By this time the ripening process had been developed and it was known that various treatments and conditions under storage resulted in different flavours and characteristics. The larger Roman houses had a separate cheese kitchen, the caseale, and also special areas where cheese could be matured. In large towns home-made cheese could be taken to a special centre to be smoked. Written evidence shows clearly how far the Romans had changed the art of cheesemaking:-
Homer, ca. 1184 BC, refers to cheese being made in the mountain caves of Greece from the milk of sheep and goats. Indeed one variety called 'Cynthos' was made and sold by the Greeks to the Romans at a price of about 1p per lb. This could well have been the Feta cheese of today.
Aristotle, 384 - 322 BC, commented on cheese made from the milk of mares and asses - the Russian 'koumiss' is in fact derived from mare's milk and is fermented to provide an alcoholic content of up to 3%.
Varro, ca. 127 BC, had noted the difference in cheeses made from a number of locations and commented on their digestibility. By this time the use of rennet had become commonplace, providing the cheesemaker with far greater control over the types of curd produced. Cheese had started to move from subsistence to commercial levels and could be marketed accordingly.
Columella, ca. AD 50, wrote about how to make cheese in considerable detail. Scottish cheesemakers today would be perfectly at home with many of the principles he set out so clearly some 1900 years ago.
By AD 300, cheese was being regularly exported to countries along the Mediterranean seaboard. Trade had developed to such an extent that the emperor Diocletian had to fix maximum prices for a range of cheeses including an apple-smoked cheese highly popular with Romans. Yet another cheese was stamped and sold under the brand name of 'La Luna', and is said to have been the precursor of today's Parmesan which was first reported as an individual make of cheese in AD 1579.
Thus, Roman expertise spread throughout Europe wherever their empire extended. While the skills remained at first with the landowners and Roman farmers, there is little doubt that in time they also percolated down to the local population. Roman soldiers, who had completed their military service and intermarried with the local populace, set up their 'coloniae' farms in retirement, and may well have passed on their skills in cheesemaking.
With the collapse of the Roman Empire around AD 410, cheesemaking spread slowly via the Mediterranean, Aegean and Adriatic seas to Southern and Central Europe. The river valleys provided easy access and methods adopted for production were adapted to suit the different terrain and climatic conditions. Cheesemakers in remote mountainous areas naturally used the milk of goats and sheep.
Tribes such as the Helvetica, who had settled in the Swiss Alps, developed their own distinctive types of cheese. They were in fact so successful in doing this that for a period all export of their Emmental cheese was banned. In Central and Eastern Europe the displacement of people through centuries of war and invasion inevitably slowed down developments in cheesemaking until the Middle Ages. Production was often restricted to the more remote mountainous areas where sensible cheesemakers simply kept their heads down and hoped for the best.
In the fertile lowlands of Europe dairy husbandry developed at a faster pace and cheesemaking from cows' milk became the norm. Hence, the particular development of cheeses such as Edam and Gouda in the Netherlands. This was much copied elsewhere under a variety of similar names such as Tybo and Fynbo. A hard-pressed cheese, relatively small in size, brine-salted and waxed to reduce moisture losses in storage, proved both marketable and easy to distribute.
France developed a wider range of cheeses from the rich agricultural areas in the south and west of that country. By and large,soft cheese production was preferred with a comparatively long making season. Hard-pressed cheese appeared to play a secondary role. To some extent this reflects the Latin culture of the nation, mirroring the cheese types produced in the Mediterranean areas as distinct from the hard-pressed cheese that were developed in the northern regions of Europe for storage and use in the long cold winter months that lay ahead.
However, throughout the Dark Ages little new progress was made in developing new cheese types. Middle Ages During the Middle Ages, monks became innovators and developers and it is to them we owe many of the classic varieties of cheese marketed today. During the Renaissance period cheese suffered a drop in popularity, being considered unhealthy, but it regained favour by the nineteenth century, the period that saw the start of the move from farm to factory production.
Man, you sure know a lot about cheese!
lol. just a quick google search.
17th June 2002
Hi, I'd like to make a complaint; I'm not seeing CHESHIRE cheese on that list! What, is the cheese of my home county not good enough for you? In fact, your list is very suspect if you ask me... many cheeses missing... who gave it to you? Was it Pethegreat? He's always offending my home county, that filthy little pumpkin head...
[color=black]Cheese is a healthful, tasty food made from milk. For thousands of years, cheese has been one of the most important foods of people throughout the world. Cheese can be eaten alone or it can be served on crackers, in sandwiches, in salads, and in cooked foods. [/color]
[color=black]There are hundreds of kinds of cheeses, and they differ in taste, texture, and appearance. Many cheeses spread easily, but others are hard and crumbly. Some kinds of cheeses taste sweet, and others have a sharp or spicy taste. [/color]
[color=black]Cheese stays fresh longer than milk, and it has much of milk's food value, including proteins, minerals, and vitamins. Cheese contains these nutrients of milk in concentrated form. For example, 8 ounces (227 grams) of Cheddar cheese provide as much protein and calcium as 11/2 quarts (1.4 liters) of milk. Cheese, like milk, supplies important amounts of vitamin A and riboflavin. [/color]
[color=black]The United States leads the world in cheese production. Almost every state of the United States makes cheese. Wisconsin ranks first among the states, and it accounts for about a fourth of U.S. cheese production. The U.S. Department of Agriculture grades a large quantity of the cheese produced in the United States as AA, A, B, or C. In addition, some states have their own standards for grading cheese. Most cheese made in Canada comes from the provinces of Quebec and Ontario. The Canadian government has its own standards for grading cheese produced in that country. [/color]
[color=black]Most cheese is produced from cow's milk. People in Europe and Asia frequently make cheese from the milk of such animals as buffaloes, goats, and sheep. But cheese can be made from the milk of any animal. Herders in Lapland use reindeer milk in making cheese. In Tibet, yaks supply milk for cheese. Cheese is also commonly made from the milk of camels, donkeys, horses, and zebras. [/color]
[color=black] Kinds of cheese [/color]
[color=black]There are more than 400 kinds of cheese. They have over 2,000 names because some cheeses are known by two or more names. For example, Swiss cheese is also called Emmentaler. Many cheeses take their names from the country or region where they were first produced. Swiss cheese originally came from Switzerland, and Roquefort cheese is made only near Roquefort, France. [/color]
[color=black]Almost all cheeses belong to one of four main groups: (1) soft, (2) semisoft, (3) hard, and (4) very hard, or grating. The amount of moisture in the cheese determines its classification. The more moisture the cheese contains, the softer it is. [/color]
[color=black]Soft cheese. The two most popular kinds of soft cheese are cottage cheese and cream cheese. Some soft cheeses, including Brie and Camembert, develop a crust. The crust releases enzymes that soften the cheese and develop its flavor. [/color]
[color=black]Semisoft cheese includes such varieties as blue, brick, Limburger, Monterey Jack, mozzarella, Munster, Port du Salut, Roquefort, and Stilton. Blue, Roquefort, and Stilton cheese have streaks of blue mold running through them. The mold, which is added during the cheesemaking process, gives these cheeses a special flavor. Blue and Stilton are made with cow's milk, but Roquefort is made only from sheep's milk. [/color]
[color=black]Hard cheese. Cheddar, Edam, Gruyere, and Swiss are popular varieties of hard cheese. Gruyere and Swiss cheese have holes called eyes. Cheese makers form the eyes by adding bacteria that produce bubbles of carbon dioxide gas in the cheese. When the cheese is sliced, the bubbles become holes. [/color]
[color=black]Very hard, or grating, cheese includes Asiago, Parmesan, Romano, and sapsago. People usually grind such cheeses and sprinkle them over such foods as soups, vegetables, and pizza. [/color]
[color=black] How cheese is made [/color]
[color=black]Almost all the cheese produced in the United States is made in large factories. The process used involves five basic steps: (1) processing the milk; (2) separating the curd; (3) treating the curd; (4) ripening; and (5) packaging. Slight differences in the process result in the production of several hundred varieties of cheese. [/color]
[color=black]Processing the milk. Cheese makers inspect the milk and remove any solid substances by a process called clarification. The milk flows into a pasteurizer that kills harmful bacteria. Pumps force the pasteurized milk into metal tanks or vats that hold from 8,000 to 35,000 pounds (3,600 to 15,900 kilograms). About 10,500 pounds (4,760 kilograms) of milk are used to make 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms) of cheddar cheese. [/color]
[color=black]Separating the curd. After the milk has been processed, it is treated to form a soft, custardlike substance called curd. The curd contains a liquid called whey, which must be expelled before cheese can be made. Cheese makers form the curd by first heating the milk to 86° to 96 °F. (30° to 36 °C). Then they add a liquid called a starter culture to the milk. This liquid contains bacteria that form acids and turn milk sour. Vegetable dye may also be added to give the cheese a certain color. At the start of the souring process, mechanical paddles stir the starter culture and dye evenly through the milk. [/color]
[color=black]After 15 to 90 minutes, workers add an enzyme that causes the milk to thicken. Cheese makers have long used rennet, a substance from the lining of the stomachs of calves. But a shortage of such rennet has caused them to use other enzymes, including pepsin from the stomachs of hogs and rennets produced by molds. Also, genetically engineered bacteria are expected to become a major source of rennet (see GENETIC ENGINEERING). The paddles blend the enzymes into the milk, which is then left undisturbed for about 30 minutes so curd will form. [/color]
[color=black]Special knives cut the curd into thousands of small cubes, and the whey oozes from them. The paddles stir the curd and whey, and the temperature in the vat is raised to between 102 °F. (39 °C) and 130 °F. (54 °C). The motion and heat force more whey from the curd. The whey is then drained or the curd is lifted from the vat. [/color]
[color=black]Treating the curd. In making most cheeses, the curd is left undisturbed after the whey is drained off. The particles stick together and form a solid mass. The curd is then broken up into small pieces for pressing. To make cottage cheese, workers rinse the curd with water and mix it with cream and salt. [/color]
[color=black]The curd for Cheddar goes through a special step after being formed into a solid mass. Workers cut the curd into large slabs, stack them in the vat, and turn them every 10 minutes. This process, called cheddaring, may also be done mechanically in large towers, rotating cylinders, or steel boxes. The slabs of curd pass through a mill, which chops them into small pieces. [/color]
[color=black]The curd for most cheeses is packed into metal hoops or molds for pressing. The containers are put into presses that keep the cheese under great pressure for a few hours to a few days. During pressing, more whey drains and the curd is shaped into blocks or wheels. Most cheeses are salted after pressing. But Cheddar and some other cheeses are salted before pressing. [/color]
[color=black]After pressing, workers remove the cheese from the hoops or molds. A crust called a rind begins to form on the cheese as it dries. To prevent a rind from forming most cheeses are sealed in plastic wrap immediately after they are removed from the metal hoops. Most cheeses today are rindless. [/color]
[color=black]Ripening, also called aging or curing, helps give cheese its flavor and texture. Cheese is aged in storage rooms or warehouses that have a controlled temperature and humidity. Aging times vary for different cheeses. Brick cheese and others need two months to age. Parmesan requires about a year. The longer the curing time, the sharper the cheese's flavor. [/color]
[color=black]Packaging. After being aged, cheese is packaged in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. Some cheeses are sliced at the factory and sealed in foil or plastic. Others are sold whole--in large blocks, wedges, balls called rounds, or short cylinders called wheels. [/color]
[color=black] Process cheese [/color]
[color=black]Much of the cheese produced in the United States is made into process cheese, a blend of natural cheeses. Process cheese keeps better than natural cheeses, and melts more evenly when used in cooking. Some process cheese is made from two or more kinds of cheese. Other process cheese is a mixture of batches of the same kind of cheese that differ in taste and texture. The cheeses are ground up and then blended with the aid of heat and chemicals called emulsifiers. Process cheese made from only one variety of cheese is named for that cheese. For example, process Swiss cheese is made only from Swiss. However, process cheese labeled Pasteurized Process American Cheese may be made from a combination of cheeses, including Cheddar, Colby, and washed curd cheese. In the United States, all cheeses used in process cheese made from two or more kinds of cheese must be identified on the label. [/color]
[color=black]Process cheese foods and process cheese spreads are made like process cheese. But cream, milk, or whey are added to make them more moist. Fruit, meat, spices, or vegetables may be added for extra flavor. Cold-pack cheese is a blend of natural cheeses. Its manufacturing process involves no heat. Much cold-pack cheese includes meat or wine as flavoring. [/color]
[color=black] History [/color]
[color=black]The first cheese was probably made more than 4,000 years ago by nomadic tribes in Asia. Through the years, knowledge of cheese making spread to Europe. [/color]
[color=black]Cheese making began in the American Colonies in 1611. That year, settlers in Jamestown, in the Virginia Colony, imported cows from England. In 1851, an American dairyman named Jesse Williams established the nation's first cheese factory, near Rome, New York. [/color]
[color=black]In 1917, J. L. Kraft, an American businessman, patented a method for making process cheese. His company also developed a method for wrapping individual slices of cheese mechanically. [/color]
[color=black]During the 1970's, scientists developed methods of removing proteins and lactose (milk sugar) from whey. Most whey had previously been thrown away. Today, manufacturers add these nutritious substances from whey to baby food, bread, ice cream, and other foods. [/color]
[color=black]Also during the 1970's, European cheese makers began to use a process called ultrafiltration for making soft cheeses. In this process, the milk is strained through such a fine filter that only water, lactose, and salts are lost. The remaining liquid contains most of the proteins normally drained off with the whey. By concentrating the milk mixture so highly, ultrafiltration makes it possible to produce more cheese in a vat. The process was first used commercially in the United States in the mid-1980's.[/color]
Mr. MattHi, I'd like to make a complaint; I'm not seeing CHESHIRE cheese on that list! What, is the cheese of my home county not good enough for you? In fact, your list is very suspect if you ask me... many cheeses missing... who gave it to you? Was it Pethegreat? He's always offending my home county, that filthy little pumpkin head...
like I said, google search. I realized it was missing some stuff later, I'll add cheshire now.
17th June 2002
That's a start, I suppose...