Conflict: M.E.P.S.

Conflict: Middle East Political Simulator In the game the player impersonates Israeli P.M. just after his election. The goal of the game is...


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Conflict: Middle East Political Simulator In the game the player impersonates Israeli P.M. just after his election. The goal of the game is to be re-elected by gaining as much support from the public opinion as possible. At the same time the player   Turn-based political-military strategy game, the player impersonates Israel's Prime Minister. The game is the authorized remake of an old homonymous classic by David Eastman. The development diary can be found at

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Conflict: Middle East Political Simulator is a game about politics. The player impersonates Israel's prime minister just after his election. The scope of the game is to be re-elected. CMEPS primarily models foreign policy, but internal politics is present also. It is important to say that the game's premise is political realism: nations act upon their interests, and their main interest (economy being absent) is to survive in a violent world. The greatest nations have all acted like gangsters and the smallest like prostitutes, this is the behaviour you’ll find in the game. War is always present, and a wise nation must get interested at it otherwise war will sooner or later get interested at that nation. But above all, the most pervasive premise in the game is the Machiavellian opinion that the destiny of a head of state is shaped half by virtù and half by fortuna. When a game starts values are randomly set, and you might have very hostile initial values in some games. In the game war is presented as a model, it is an abstract simplification and idealization of what can be real war and I felt the need to justify these simplifications throughout the manual.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I must thank David Eastman who created the original game, he let me make this new version giving me complete freedom. I must also thank two members of the Quest3d community, Jochen Kranzer and Diego, whose “Loader” and “Flag” templates have been used in the game. The 3d models of the military units were not my creation, I used free models I found on various websites. I did try to contact the creators asking for their permission to use the models, but I never received any answer: I’m ready to remove their models in case they don’t like to see that someone have used them. Finally, I must thank my love Daniela, who endured me throughout the making of the game.
The theatre of the game is Middle East: Israel is the only democratic country, other nations are Libya, Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Iran. All these nations are not democratic, but more or less authoritarian regimes. In these nations there's hidden forces that want to fight these regimes, and party either for democracy or for radical islamism. The player can maneuvre these forces for Israel's interests. Not all countries have relations with all other countries: they only have relations with their first grade neighbors (those that share a border with a given country) and with their second grade neighbors (those that share a border with a given country's direct neighbors). A couple of simple examples will make it clear: 1) Libya has relations with Egypt because they share a border; Libya has relations with Israel because Egypt shares a border with it. Libya has relations with no other country. 2) Lebanon has relations with Israel and Syria because they share a border. It also has relations with Egypt because Israel shares a border with it, and with Jordan and Iraq because Syria shares a border with them. Lebanon has relations with no other country. The only exception is Israel, which has relations with Iran also, despite the fact this is a third-grade neighbour (in fact Iran does not shares a border with any of Israel's first-grade neighbours). Here's the complete list of relationships, the asterisk marks the Israel-Iran exception, in bold are signed all first-grade relations:
• Israel: Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Libya, Iraq, Iran* • Libya: Egpyt, Israel • Egypt: Libya, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan • Lebanon: Israel, Syria, Egypt, Jordan, Iraq • Syria: Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, Iran • Jordan: Israel, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Lebanon, Iran • Iraq: Syria, Joran, Iran, Israel, Lebanon • Iran: Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Israel* 
When a game starts the player is proposed with two objectives presented as electoral promises that the newly elected player repeats in his first speech as Israel's P.M. If both these promises are fullfilled the player grants himself greater chances to be re-elected. The possible promises and their explicit explanation is as follows: • "I'm granting for country x independence" - in this case at the end of the game country x must still exist without a change of internal regime: this condition states that Israel will grant the status quo for the  given country • "I'll defend Israel from the country x threat" - this is a diplomatic way to tell that at the end of the game country x must be eliminated from the game, in a way or another
• "Country x will never be a nuclear power" - it is quite clear that country x must not achieve the nuclear power status, it must not have completed nuclear research by the last turn • "Country x will soon be a democratic regime" - talking about the middle east, Israel is the only democratic country. Political realism does not exclude that the internal regime drives international relations, in fact it can be demostrated that democratic countries do not fight wars against each other. If Israel's security passes by a democratic neighborhood, then this is a reasonable foreign policy objective. If this is the objective, by the end of the game country x must be controlled by the democratic rebels • "Country x and us will be close friends" - in this case there must be excellent relations (greater than 80) between Israel and country x by the last turn • "Palestine will never be independent" - this is self-explanatory, as the P.M. is promising that there will not be a Palestinian state by the end of his mandate. This condition is specific to Israel's history, but it can be applied to any nation with minorities inside it
As stated before, the game objective is to be re-elected: elections are performed at the end of the 15th turn, and the only variable that is counted is the domestic public opinion. What exactly represents domestic public opinion when speaking about elections? Well, in every democratic contry there’s a block of people that will always vote for one political block or another no matter what happens, and there’s a smaller percentage of undecided people, the most precious in every election because they must be convinced and they ultimately decide the outcome of an election. The domestic public opinion variable exactly represents that small key percentage of people. The groups are thus distributed: 40% will always vote for the player’s party 40% will always vote for the opposition 15% must be convinced which party to vote 5% vote completely randomly So if the player wants to be matematically sure he’ll be re-elected he’ll have to convince 2/3 of the domestic public opinion because doing so will grant him 10% of undecided votes, that summed to his 40% will grant him the majority. The player thus has to care the public opinion throughout the game, some decisions will make his approval rating go up or down. If the electoral promises are fulfilled the public opinion will like the news, and between 10-20% of undecided will be convinced to vote for the player’s party. In the end: always remember that the domesic public opinion represents 15% of the total ballots, the more people you convince, the greater your chances are to be re-elected. Pay attention to the fact that having 51% percent of the domestic public opinion on your side will not grant you the victory as your chances will be 40% + 7,65% (0,51*15) = 47,65 Plus a random value between 0 and 5, but if you were smart you wouldn’t count on it.
The game is turn based, with a wego system: the player and the a.i. will make their own decisions for the current turn, which will be played at the same time for all the players. That means there's two distinct phases: one in which everybody makes his own decision and time is freezed, and another one beyond the control of the players, in which those decisions are turned into action. After the execution phase the turn changes and you'll have an overview of what's happened as newspapers will keep you informed. So for example, if we are at turn 3, and both Egypt and Israel decide to deploy troops at their front this is the simple sequence • situation at turn 3: no troops at either Israeli or Egyptian fronts • decisions for turn 3: both Israel and Egypt decide to deploy troops • transition from turn 3 to turn 4, troops are deployed • situation at turn 4: both countries have troops deployed at the respective front • decisions for turn 4... And so on. The same thing applies to the diplomatic decisions. In order to advance to the next turn press the green button on the lower right part of the screen in the main map mode.
1.4 – SAVING AND LOADING Games are automatically saved when pressing the red X button in the upper right part of the screen in main map mode.
If you want to load a previously saved game click on “Load game” in the main menu.
So you can interrupt a game, quit, and load it at the next restart of the game. Only one game is saved, everytime you press the X button in main map mode the old saved game is overwritten with the current situation.
The game consists of three main screen modes: the main map, from which the player can briefly review the overall situation and can enter the foreign policy mode (for Arab countries) or the domestic policy mode (for Israel). In the foreign policy mode the player can take foreign policy decisions for the selected country, while in the domestic policy mode the player takes decisions that affect Israel. From the foreign policy mode the player can enter the tactical map, which exists only for countries bordering Israel. In the tactical map the player can deploy troops on the border with the selected country, decide their disposition and the order of battle. If the game is too slow, you can change the graphics detail in any moment pressing keys from 1 to 5: 1 – toggles normal mapping shader 2 – changes between low and high definition for units in the tactical screen 3 – toggles shadows from 3d units 4 – toggles 3d terrain 5 – switches between 3d and 2d units in the tactical screen
Now, let's see each of these screen modes in detail...
The main map: from here the player can review the overall situation and select specific countries to issue foreign or domestic policy decisions. There's many elements in the map, they are used to depict the situation in a brief and clear way, here's an explantion of all the elements. 
1) the countries: they can be clicked to access the correspondent foregin policy mode. Their colour changes to reflect the international relations between the country the mouse is upon in a given moment and the rest of the world. For example, moving the mouse upon Libya will give the relations between Libya and all the countries Libya has relations with. The default country whose relations are shown is Israel. Countries are coloured as follows, see the image below for an example:
• white: the current country (Israel, the default) • red: terrible relations with the current country, in this case Iran and Lebanon have terrible relations with Israel • orange: this country has bad relations with the current country, in this case Syria has bad relations with Israel • grey: neutral relations towards the current country, in this case Iraq and Libya are neutral towards Israel • dark green: good relations towards the current country, in this case Egypt and Israel have good relations • brilliant green: excellent relations with the current country, in this case Jordan has excellent relations with Israel 
In the image above one can see Israel's relations.
Relations are genereated randomly when a game starts, do not be surprised to have games where all the middle east is against you.
2) the monoliths: these symbols represent four variables of the game. Here's the explanation of all these variables: • Monolith shape: five possible shapes that represent the leadership level of each nation, or how good is the leader of that nation. Israel's leadership is always the best (of course, you are the leader!)
 this represents an excellent and skilled leader
 this represents a good leader
 this is a leader of average skills
 this is a bad and inexpert leader
 this is a terrible and weak-minded leader
• Monolith colour: five possible colours representing the public opinion's attitude towards Israel for a given country. For Israel the colour represents the domestic public opinion towards your government: if you want to win the elections you'd better consider domestic public opinion! these are the explanation of the colours for Arab countries / Israel
 a very good attitude / a very high popularity
 a generally positive attitude / a generally good popularity
 a neutral feeling / an average popularity
 a bad attitude / a low popularity
 a terrible attitude / lowest possible popularity
• Monolith height: this represents the stability of each country's regime. All the Arab regimes are authoritarian, and all have democratic and islamist forces that conjure against them. As those forces get stronger and gain new adepts, the regime they're fighting gets weaker because it loses support, until you can unleash the strongest opposition's rebellion or until the point the regime can't stand the combined pressure of the democrats and the islamists and collapses drawing the country into a civil war. For Israel it represents the level of Palestinian uprising.
 highest possible stability, you'll have to work a lot to undermine it
 a high stability, this regime is solid
 an average stability
 a very low stability
 lowest possible stability, this regime will not last long
• Stars   upon the monolith: these represent the overall military proficiency of a country. This value is an average of the proficiencies of each kind of unit, so Israel might have a brilliant infantry but a terrible proficiency of all other units, so it will have a low total score. It is thus clear that an average army is the most commond result, while the extremes are extremely rare. Before fighting a war it is better to check each unit's proficiency compared to those of the enemy. The stars' meaning is as follows
 this country has a mighy army, I wouldn't dare challenge them
 a strong and prepared army
 an average army
 a weak army
 this country's army is ridiculous, you can flush it away with ease
3) nuclear research and weapons symbols: when a country starts nuclear research and when it completes it you can see a reminder on the map. When a country has not yet completed the research you can see the percentage of completion below the symbol.
 this country has started nuclear research, notice the percentage
 this country has completed nuclear research, it has nuclear weapons!
4) alliance proposal symbol: when a country makes you an alliance proposal that proposal lasts for three turns, then it is retired. When a country is in alliance proposal status it has the following remainder
5) truce proposal symbol: if a war is going on, your enemy might get tired of it and propose a truce; if the U.N. has mediated it, your enemy will always propose it.
6) total firepower deployed: when you or the enemy deploy troops you'll see two figures on the map. They represent total firepower for land units deployed on a front: the figure on the right is always Israel's firepower, the figure on the left is always the enemy's firepower.
In the picture you can see an example of total firepower. It gives you a rough idea on the balance of forces on a given front.
If the U.N. have negotiated a truce on that front the shape will become blue. 
7) countries x-y relation lines: these are lines of different colour that represent either an alliance, a mobilization, or a war or a truce. Mobilizations, wars and truces can only happen between first-grade neighbors, alliance even between second-grade neighbors.
    a mobilization
 a war
 an alliance
 a truce
6) the military ranking: in the picture below you can see figures from 1 to 5. They are used to depict the military rankings of the smaller group of nations Israel is facing. Do not mix the stars with these figures: while the former only tell you the average proficiency of the army, the latter tells you exactly who's the strongest in any given moment. As you can see Jordan has only 2 stars, so it does not have a very proficient army, and it's ranked 4, higher than Lebanon which has 3 stars, so a more proficient army than Jordan's, but it's ranked 5: 
unfortunately for Lebanon quantity matters and so Jordan can stage more troops which altough weaker have more total firepower than Lebanon.
This is where the foreign policy decisions are taken for each country. The screen is divided in sections: 
The upper section provides the name of the country and it’s balance. On the left there’s a visual representation of the leader quality (the guy dressed as a colonel on the left) and of its relations with the public opinion (the three guys on the right): for example a bad leader is represented as tiny and the public opinion as very big. On the contrary a skilled leader will dwarf the public opinion. On the right there’s a visual representation of how much the foreign policies of Israel and the current country match: this is an important factor, the a.i.-controlled countries will take it into account when deciding whether or not to improve relations with other countries (and therefore with Israel).
The middle part of the screen is where you can check all the political variables for the currently selected country (first 5 variables) and for Israel (last two variables, light blue coloured). These indicators represent the past situation (left column), the current situation (central column), and the projection for the next turn given the policy decisions and other factors involved (right column). The last columns vary dynamically as the player selects or deselects the various policy options, these options in fact have side-effects on some game variables. The columns will turn green or red coloured given the positive or negative trend of the variable.
The lower part refers to the actual selection of policy options. Move the mouse over a button and you’ll have a description of it in the box on the left, including the side-effects of the decisions on 
the game variables. The box on the right reports how many decisions you can take in the current turn. Some buttons are double, right-click on them to switch between the options.
Improve relations: you’ll try to have a friendlier attitude towards the given country.
   Spoil relations: the opposite, you’ll try to disrupt relation with    the given country.
Propose an alliance: you can try to establish an alliance with the current country.
Send aid: if you’re allied with a country you can spend half of your balance to train its armed forces
Break the alliance: you’ll be no more allied with this country.
Propose a truce: if you’re at war you can propose a peace without winners or losers. This is going to have a big effect on Israel’s public opinion.  
  Support the democratic opposition: you’ll help the pro-western opposition groups to enlarge their support base.
Disrupt the democratic opposition: you’ll help the government against the prowestern opposition groups
Support the islamist opposition: you’ll help the religious fanatics to enlarge their support base.
Disrupt the islamist opposition: you’ll help the government against the religious fanatics.
Start a coup d’etat: if you feel the oppositions are strong enough you can unleash them, they’ll try to topple the government.
Assassinate the leader: this is a quick way to eliminate a country.
Investigate military deployment: you’ll try to discover the enemy’s order of battle.
Limited strike: you’ll destroy an industrial target thus reducing to 0 the current country’s balance for two turns.
Destroy the nuclear reactor: if the current country is trying to achieve nuclear status you can use this option to slow their research. For every successful strike the research will suffer a setback.
Deploy the IDF: you’ll go into tactical screen to deploy your troops.
Nuk’em: you’ll drop a nuclear weapon and win any war, but you might trigger a nuclear escalation resulting in the destruction of the planet, or, on a reduced scale, to a mutual destruction if the other country has nukes too.
Invade: you’ll start the hostilities with the current country. You’ll have the initiative but you’ll be held responsible for the war.
Proposal a mutual withdrawal: you'll propose a bilateral retirement of troops from the front and the cancellation of the mobilization.
This is where you deploy your troops and decide your tactics against the enemy. This screen is comprised of a map of the terrain you'll fight on with the troops, which can be deployed and moved into offensive or defensive position, and the oob section on the right. The functions are as follows: 1) the map, the units, and their counters: the forces deployed appear on the map 
as 3d units; lands forces appear on the ground, air forces are floating. Israeli units are coloured in blue , opfor units (current Arab country units) are in red. 
 an Israeli unit
 an opfor unit
1a) moving units: you can move the land units into offensive or defensive position by clicking on the red sword button or the blue shield button.  the sword button
 the shield button
Doing so you can notice the percentages on these buttons change. These percentages are taken from the proficiency of the current unit, and represent the proficiency allotted to the defence and to the attack: it is a straightforward value that tells you the chances to repel an attack from an enemy (the percentage written on the shield) and to destroy an enemy unit (the percentage written on the sword). A practical example can be useful: uppose you're looking at your tanks, which have a proficiency of 20, which you can see from the section on the right. The value on the upper left corner of each icon is the proficiency.
You see this exact value on the map. You can think about it as a budget to allocate to attack or defence, so if you move your tanks completely in an offensive stance by clicking on the sword until the unit is close to it, the proficiency will be allocated to attack, so you'll see 20% upon the sword (that means the whole of 20%), and 0% upon the shield (nothing of that 20%). That means your unit will not even try to defend itself when it will be attacked, and will spend everything while trying to destroy the enemy.

  this unit will have 20% of chances to make a successful attack
 this unit will have 0% of chances to make a successful defence
If you want a more balanced stance, move your unit in the middle by clicking upon the shield: you'll see the proficiency distribute between attack (10% on the sword, or half of the proficiency), and defence (10% on the shield, half of the proficiency again). So your units will have 10% of chances to destroy their target, and 10% to avoid an attack. If you want to be even safer, move again your tanks by clicking on the shield until they are close to it. The percentages will distribute this way: 0% to the attack (100% of the total proficiency), and 20% to the defence (the total proficiency divided by two). In this case your troops will not even try to destroy their target preferring to concentrate upon their own defence.
 this unit will have 0% of chances to make a successful attack
 this unit will have 20% of chances to make a successful defence
1b) selecting the target. Every unit has two targets, the primary and the secondary one. The primary target is the one a unit was conceived to destroy. Against the primary target the full attack proficiency can be used. Against the secondary unit only half of the attack proficiency can be used. In order to change the target just click on the 3d unit on the map.
rocket arty is infantry's primary target
helos are infatry's secondary targets
As you can see the attack chances are different. That's because a unit can attack its secondary target at only half of its proficency. The colour of the arrow changes also.
1c) deploying units. You can't fight without troops on the ground. In order to deploy units move the mouse near the 3d unit you want to deploy. Arrows will appear up and down. Clicking on the down arrow you'll move troops from the mobile reserve to the front, clicking on the up arrow you'll move the units back to the mobile reserve. Left mouse button will move 1 unit, right mouse button will move units continuously.
 deploy and retire units with the arrows
When you move units you can see the total firepower that unit has deployed, as it is currently distributed between attack and defence. The total firepower is simply the number of units per unit's proficiency.
In this case 25 infantry units will produce a firepower of 250 in attack and defence
Near your units you can see a white label with a figure: that figure is the total firepower deployed by the enemy unit currently targeted. It is a useful tool when calculating attacking odds, but remember what that figure represents: total firepower of enemy unit you'll attack. The actual firepower devoted to attack or defence is unknown to you, because you don't know enemy's tactical dispositions for that turn, unless you send the Mossad to investigate the front. In fact, if you select the “Investigate military deployment” button, you’ll try to discover as much as possible about the enemy dispositions for the following turn. If you’re succesfull you’ll know the enemy’s order of battle, target and offensive or defensive deployment of the enemy units. Warning: it’s unlikely that you’ll know the deployment of all the enemy plans, you’ll still have some unit whose deployment or position in the oob is unknown. 
 Select this button to disclose the enemy’s war plans
In the picture the combined forces of artillery and infantry will attack enemy rocket artillery totaling a firepower of 136.
Fighters are special, as they can be not only deployed or retired, but also can be assigned to air supremacy or interceptor role. In order to change the role click on the left or right arrow. The figure in the left circle represents fighters in air supremacy role, in the right circle fighters in interceptors role. In the middle circle the total fighters deployed. They can be freely moved between roles.
 5 fighters are deployed in both roles
2) the oob section. OOB stands for "order of battle". In real world this is the composition and organization of large formations. In the game it is literally the order in which land units attack their targets. The proper OOB is the narrow vertical strip of little icons in the middle, it is composed of alternate Israeli and opfor units (highlighted section in picture a).       a                 b                c                d 
             The larger icons on the left and on the right of the OOB are used to place units into the OOB in case of land units (picture b); together with air units serve as a reference for the deployment (picture c). On the bottom, there's Gen. Dayan ready to help you with the tactical dispositions and with accounts of the last battles (picture d, more on that later).
In order to change the order of battle you can click on the units you wish to move in the OOB, their icon will change into a question mark, and their corresponding icons on the left will turn dark. Clicking on these large icons you can put the selected unit back into the order of battle, starting from the first free slot.
Here's a practical example: suppose you've got this OOB (picture 1): your helos, enemy unit, your artillery, enemy unit, your infantry, enemy unit, your rocket arty, enemy unit, your tanks, enemy unit.       1                2               3               4
      You're not happy with it, so you wish to change units' order for infantry and artilley. By clicking on the artillery and the rocket artillery you remove both from the OOB, their large icon turns dark (picture 2). Now if you want you can place them back in the OOB in a different order. By clicking the large rocket arty icon, the rocket arty will occupy the first free slot (picture 3), the artillery the last available slot (picture 4). Opfor units in the OOB all appear as question marks, as you don't know the decisions of the enemy. You can use your spies to investigate the enemy units' deployment. Large icons have a set of counters, they'll help you with deploying your units. First, on the upper left corner, there's the proficiency of the unit expressed as a percentage. On the map also you have the same figure, along with the total firepower expressed as quantity x proficiency
Beneath the unit icon you've got two figures separated by a slash. They represent how many units can be moved in one turn and how many units you still can move. 
This number decreases when sending new reinforcements into a front. It does increase when sending back new reinforcements from a front to the mobile 
reserve. Finally, it simply does not change when moving troops already deployed from the previous turn to the mobile reserve. In the upper right corner you’ve got the mobile reserve, or how many troops not yet deployed you have. 
You can transfer units between fronts in the same turn. As an example, you might want to transfer units between Egypt and Syria in the same turn. So you can retire your troops in the Egyptian front at no cost, you’ll find them in the mobile reserve. Then you can simply deploy those troops to Syria, in this case you’ll spend movement points. If you change your mind you can retire those troops from Syria and you’ll have your movement points replenished, and send them back to Egypt at no cost. The reason is that you’re just giving orders, units are not moving until the execution phase: so if you’ve got 10 units in Egypt from a previous turn you can give the order to move them to Syria, but if you cancel your order units actually never move, that’s why your movement points are replenished. See the section on deploying units for a detailed explanation of the mechanism behind unit deployment. On the bottom of the OOB section you can see a picture of Gen. Dayan surrounded by four icons.
Blue shield icon: the same as the button used to move units into defensive stance. By clicking this you're asking Dayan to decide the order of battle and units disposition for you with a general defensive attitude. Red sword icon: the same as the button used to move units into offensive stance. By clicking this you're asking Dayan to decide the order of battle and units disposition for you with a general offensive attitude. Yellow "i" icon: i stands for information, after a battle you can have a detailed account of what's happened by moving the mouse over this icon. If a battle occurred you'll have an after-action report (AAR) detailing what happened while attacking and defending for each unit. Green “done” button: clicking this you can go back to the foreign policy options screen. 
When on the main map, you can click on Israel also. This would not bring up the usual foreign policy screen as options for Israel are all of internal policy. There’s 2 screens for Israel: 1) military review screen.
Here you have an overview of the military situation for Israel and its neighboring countries. There's a section for every unit, listing how many units a country has, their proficiency, and their total firepower. Also, there's the sum of the firepower of all units, which determines the military ranking of every country. You might take a look at this screen before commencing any operation. The important thing to remember is that firepower should never be compared between similar units, but always between a unit and its primary and secondary target. For example, it is quite useless to compare Israeli infantry's firepower with Egyptian infantry's firepower as they'll never fight against each other. It is more useful to compare Israeli infantry against Egyptian rocket artillery (infantry's primary target) or helicopters (infantry's secondary target) in case you're interested in attack chances; in case you want to check the survival chances for your infantry you'd better check Egyptian artillery (whose primary target is infantry) or tanks (whose secondary target is infantry).
Every unit for every country has a box. Here's a detailed explanation of the figures, see picture below: in the red circle is the number of units currently owned; in the orange circle there's the proficiency of that kind of unit; in the yellow circle the total firepower for that unit (quantity of units x units proficiency); in the blue circle there's the increase of units from the previous turn due to purchases; in the violet circle there's the decrease of units from the previous turn due to combat.
2) domestic policy screen
Move your mouse over one of the three coloured areas to disclose the corresponding options.
2a) the units purchase screen
You'd better invest your money in a balanced army, first of all trying to address your weaknesses. In this screen you can see six columns, this is their meaning: • currently owned: how many troops you have in total (unit at your immediate disposal plus deployed units) • mobile reserve: how many undeployed units you have • unit: the unit you are considering • price: price per unit • quantity: how many you have put in the basket • subtotal: price for the units you selected To purchase the troops click on the arrows at the left or the right of every unit, just move the mouse near the unit you wish to purchase and the arrows will appear. If you want, Gen. Dayan is there to help you choose which troops you need most. He'll make recommendations for land units only, and again you can choose if you want an offensive or defensive attitude by clicking on the sword or the shield respectively. If you select a defensive attitude Gen. Dayan will compare the total firepower of each unit (let's say infantry) and the one of opfor troops that unit is a target for (for infantry they're artillery and tanks). In case of offensive attitude the comparison is made between your units (again infantry) and their targets (for infantry they're rocket arty and helos). So in the first case the greatest difference in firepower will count because the unit with the greatest difference against its opfor units will be the one with most difficulties in defending itself, otherwise it will be the smallest difference in firepower as the unit with the smallest difference in firepower against its targets will be the one with most difficulties in destroying the enemy.
2b) nuclear research screen.
If you want to be someone in this world you must have nuclear weapons. Dropping a nuke on an enemy will make you win any war, but there's always the risk of a global thermo-nuclear conflict! from this screen you can enact funds for nuclear research every turn. When completing the research you'll be able to drop nukes; remember there's the risk of mishaps that make research last longer than expected.
2c) Palestinian situation.
Palestine is not free, all the territories occupied in '67 are still in your hands. Situation in the territories can get so tense to arrive at an intifada if you do not garrison them. When situation gets bad chances to suffer a kamikaze attack increase. You do not want a kamikaze attack as the domestic public opinion will accuse you of not protecting the citizens. You can also decide to unilaterally concede Palestinian independence, and thus get rid of all the problems, but that would cause an earthquake in internal politics: the shock in the country, the oppositions in your coalition and the inimities in your same party thus created will somehow paralize your government, and in the following turn you have no policy tokens.
At the start of each game political values are randomly chosen. These values are: 1) bilateral relations between all the countries: this is the level of relations two countries experience. Values range from 1 to 100. 2) stability of the countries and stregth of the oppositions: stability and the stregth of the oppositions range from 1 to 100; the sum of the strength of the oppositions determines the (in)stability. If democrats have a strength of 34 and the islamists of 22, then the stability of the regime will be 100-(34+22)=44. IMPORTANT: be careful when supporting oppositions: if their combined strengths is more than 100 a civil war will result, and you will lose between 10 and 20% of the domestic public opinion support, as you will be held responsible for the slaughters of the civil war. 3) quality of the leadership: from 1 to 100. Leadership determines how a country reacts to the diplomatic situation. See the section on leadership for the details. 4) public opinion: from 1 to 100. For Arab countries it is the opinion towards Israel. Although not democratic, Arab countries have a public opinion made of the classes supporting the regime, the more or less restricted group of people surrounding the leader, the higher ranks of the army. In one word: the elites. Even non-democratic regimes must be concerned if consensus in the elites falls below a certain threshold. The most important thing is that a weak leader will be greatly influenced by the public opinion, so you can play with it to influence the leader. For Israel it is the domestic public opinion your reelection depends upon: keep an eye on it! 5) quantity of units: this is a semi-random value, as a country like Egypt will clearly must have more troops than Lebanon. Also, different kinds of units have different quantity threshold. These are the generation ranges: • infantry: from 50 to 100 • artillery: from 40 to 80 • tanks: from 30 to 60 • helicopters: from 20 to 40 • rocket artillery: from 10 to 20 • fighters: from 10 to 20 • bombers: from 5 to 10 These quantities are valid for Israel, other Arab countries have multipliers applied to account for different size and population, so Egypt will have 3/2 the units of Israel, Lebanon 2/3 of Israel, Syria will have the same units as Israel while Jordan slightly less than Israel. 6) units proficiency: this figure differs from unit to unit, and represents a percentage of success in fullfilling a mission. • infantry: ranges from 11 to 20. • artillery: ranges from 21 to 40 • tanks: from 31 to 60 • helicopter: from 41 to 80 • rocket artillery: from 51 to 100 • fighters: from 26 to 75 • bombers: always 100, that means bombers always destroy their target 
(unless they are intercepted!) Units proficiency varies as more technologically units have greater chances to fullfill their mission, while simpler units can't go beyond a certain level of proficiency due to their nature and role on the battlefield. You can have the best infantry in the world, but it will still have a maximum proficiency of 20. On the other hand, you can find yourself with poor rocket artillery but it will still have a minimum proficiency of 50. 7) units price: again, it's different from unit to unit, with more advanced units costing more than simple ones: • infantry: from 8 to 12 • artillery: 16 to 24 • tanks: 24 to 36 • helicopters: 32 to 48 • rocket artillery: 40 to 60 • fighters: 80 to 120 • bombers: 160 to 240 Price is the same for all countries. 8) deployable units per turn: this directly depends on the proficiency of each unit 9) the balance for each country, ranges are: • Israel: 400 to 500 • Egypt: 400 to 500 • Lebanon: 200 to 300 • Syria: 300 to 400 • Jordan: 300 to 400 10) the total funds needed to build a nuclear weapon (this figure might rise due to mishaps) 11) Palestinian unrest: from 1 to 100. 12) relations with the U.S.A.: from 1 to 100, if relations with the Americans are good you'll be granted extra money, this calculus is made every turn so if your relations with the yanks are so-so do not expect billions of dollars every turn. A good way to have good relations with the Americans is to appear as the victims of foreign aggressions. If you commit atrocities don't be surprised if you'll be left alone. However it’s not that simple: the U.S. have their own foreign policy which can be quite different than yours. In case of discrepancy you’ll see a small green triangle pointing up or a red one pointing down: they will tell you that the Americans have respectively good and bad relations with that country. For every country for which there’s a discrepancy the Americans will limit their maximum support by 10. So if there’s three countries for which there’s a discrepancy betweeen you and the Americans the U.S. relations will never be better than 100(10+10+10)=70. You could do everything but your relations with the U.S. will never go beyond this limit as long as you don’t change your relations with those countries. It’s up to you whether to try to maximize the U.S. support or to pursue your objectives without caring too much about the yanks.
As you can see from the little triangles the Americans want us to have bad relations with Lebanon, while they want us to have good relations with Syria, Jordan and Iran: as long as you don’t adjust relations with those countries accordingly the U.S. support will never go beyond 100-(10+10+10+10)=60 Why you should be concerned about relations with the Americans? Because they’ll grant an extra income proportionally to your relations with them. The relation trend is not linear, it is designed to give the player a little incentive to have his relations with the U.S. grow stronger and stronger. The graphic below show the extra income granted given the level of relations.
bonus granted per turn
1 9 17 25 33 41 49 57 65 73 81 89 97 relations with the U.S.
As you can see you’re forced to have very good relations with the Americans if you want some decent bonus.
3.2 - WAR 3.2.1 - TARGETS War in the game is a sort of abstraction and idealization of real war. You've got 7 different units, each with different ranges of proficiency and trained to chase a specific target. Units can also have secondary targets, but they'll not be as effective as when fighting against their primary target. The units, and their targets (written as primary/secondary) are: • infantry: rocket artillery/helicopters • artillery: infantry/rocket artillery • tanks: artillery/infantry • helicopters: tanks/artillery • rocket artillery: helicopters/tanks • fighters: their targets vary as they are given air supremacy or interceptor role, in the first case they target other fighters otherwise bombers, with the same proficiency for both targets • bombers: every land unit
3.2.2 - COMBAT ROUNDS Friendly and hostile land units go into battle in alternate order, the first unit belonging to the country that has the initiative. A total of ten rounds are played. When a unit goes into battle it spends the part of proficiency dedicated to attack trying to destroy its current target (either primary or secondary): its target can try to avoid destruction spending the part of proficiency dedicated to defence. If the target successfully defends itself it is not destroyed and the next attacking unit will try to destroy it. Note that units acting as targets every round are totally passive during that round, they just can try to repel the attack, but can't strike back at the attacking unit.
3.2.3 - UNITS DISPOSITIONS Actual chances to destroy an enemy unit depend on proficiency, which is a unit's chance to complete a task; these chances can be distributed between attack and defence, and will determine the chance to successfully attack the enemy, or successfully repel an enemy attack. Percentages are distributed in a straightforward way: if a unit is in attack stance it will assign 100% of the proficiency to the attack and 0% to the defence; a unit in defensive stance on the contrary will assign 100% of proficiency on the defence and 0% on the attack. A unit in the middle will have half of its proficiency devoted to attack the enemy and to defend itself.
offensive stance: attack chances = proficiency x 1 --> 100% of proficency defence chances = proficiency x 0 --> 0% of proficiency balanced stance: attack chances = proficiency x 0.5 --> 50% of proficiency     defence chances = proficiency x 0.5 --> 50% of proficiency defensive stance: attack chances = proficiency x 0 --> 0% of proficiency defence chances = proficiency x 1 --> 100% of proficiency
So, let's say your strong rocket artillery has a proficiency of 90, to be intended as 90% to complete their job, these are the actual chances given their stance: offensive stance: attack chances = 90 x 1 = 90% to successfully attack the target defence chances = 90 x 0 = 0% to successfully repel an enemy attack
balanced stance: attack chances = 90 x 0.5 = 45% to successfully attack the target defence chances = 90 x 0.5 = 45% to repel an enemy attack
defensive stance: attack chances = 90 x 0 = 0% to successfully attack the target defence = 90 x 1 = 90% to successfully repel an enemy attack
3.2.4 - THE INITIATIVE The country in possession of the initiative every turn has the privilege to attack first, as depicted in the OOB. How initiative can change between a turn and another? after all the battles, the total losses in firepower (quantity x proficency of each unit) will be compared: the country that destroyed the greatest enemy's firepower will have the initiative in the next turn. That means if you put your units into offensive position they'll have more chances to destroy enemy firepower, thus having more chances to have the initiative and the privilege of the first attack even for the next turn. To make a practical example, suppose at the end of a turn you have the following losses, written as "quantity of units lost x proficency = firepower" Losses for Israel due to Egyptian attacks: • infantry: 30x10=300 • artillery: 14x25=350 • tanks: 16x50=800 • helicopters: 7x70=490 • rocket artillery: 3x90=270 Total firepower loss of Israel --> 300+350+800+490+270 = 2210 Losses for Egypt due to Israeli attacks: • infantry: 20x18=360 • artillery: 10x40=400 • tanks: 25x55=1375 • helicopters: 12x80=960 • rocket artillery: 8x70=560 Total firepower loss of Egypt --> 360+400+1375+960+560 = 3655 Israel has inflicted more losses to Egypt this turn, so in the next turn it will have the initiative and the privilege of the first attack. When a war starts no battles have yet occurred, so initiative for the first turn is assigned to the invading country; in case both contenders declare war in the same turn initiative will be assigned to the higher ranking as total firepower (see domestic policy options for the screen with military rankings).
3.2.5 - AIR UNITS Fighters in air supremacy role will try to shoot down enemy fighters, first those in air supremacy role and then those in interceptor role. Air supremacy fighters play their dogfightings together, who shoots down more fighters wins the dogfight and the difference between his and the enemy's destroyed units are subtracted from the total of enemy's units. Example: it is dogfighting round. Israel has 7 fighters in air supremacy role, Egypt has 3. During the fights Israel hits 4 Egyptian fighters, Egypt hits 2 Israeli fighters. Israel wins the round and a total of 4-2=2 Egyptian fighters are destroyed. Which fighters are destroyed? all the air supremacy ones until there's some of them, then the interceptors are destroyed. For example, consider this situation: Israel: 6 fighters in air supremacy role, 3 as interceptors Egpyt:  2 fighters in air supremacy role, 2 as interceptors Result of the dogfights: Israeli fighters score 5 Egyptian fighters score 2 Israel wins the dogfights and a total of 5-2 = 3 Egyptian fighters will be actually eliminated, after the first 2 eliminated there's no more in air supremacy role, so 1 is eliminated from the interceptors.
Fighters in interceptor role will try to intercept and shoot down enemy bombers. Chances to intercept an enemy bomber thus stopping its mission are equal to the fighters' proficiency. If a bomber is intercepted there's chances to shoot him down, chances to do so again are equal to the fighters' proficiency. So, you might a) not be able to intercept a bomber, b) be able to intercept it without destroying it (and in the next turn it will be available again), or c) to intercept it and shoot it down, thus making it unavailable in the next turn. Note that even if you put more interceptors than bombers the calculus will be made on the number of bombers. For example: Israel does not know how many bombers Egypt will deploy, and decides to put 4 fighters as interceptors. Egpyt deploys only 1 bomber, when it flies a mission the first Israeli fighter has its chances to intercept it. The other fighters remain silent waiting for the next bomber to fly its mission, but since Egypt staged only 1 of them, the other 3 Israeli interceptors are wasted: not only they do not take part in the dogfights but also there is nothing for them to intercept. Bombers fly their mission trying to destroy a random land unit. Given the differences between land units, if a bomber successfully attacks its target it destroy a different amount of troops for different unit types: • infantry --> 5 of them are destroyed for each bomber attack • artillery --> 4 of them are destroyed • tanks --> 3 of them • helicopters --> 2 of them • rocket artillery --> only 1 is destroyed for each bomber attack Bombers are so powerful that they do not have a proficiency, if they are not intercepted their chances to hit a target is 100%.
As a practical example, take the situation in the picture, your spies have discovered enemy plans and so enemy oob and tactical dispositions are known. This is what will happen in the air units phase, executed for first: 1) 9 Israeli fighters will combat 8 enemy fighters; they’ll have respectively 42% and 53% chances of shooting down an enemy fighter. Let’s say that Israel realizes 4 hits, and the enemy 5. The results is 5-4=1 Israeli fighter lost. 2) Bombers perform their mission: 3 Israeli bombers must survive 4 enemy interceptors; 6 enemy bombers have NO Israeli interceptors against. Note that the enemy has placed one “useless” interceptor, because for each bomber only 1 interceptor will try to shoot it down. Unless you investigate the front you can’t know how many bombers will be deployed, so you’d better put extra interceptors if you can. Each enemy interceptor have chances of intercepting one bomber equal to its proficiency, and once intercepted they havechances of actually shooting it down equal again to proficiency. Therefore in this case the enemy will use 3 interceptors against 3 bombers (the fourth will not be used as we said): each will have 53% of intercepting the bomber, and once intercepted 53% chances of shooting it down. So probably one Israeli bomber will be intercepted, another one will successfully fly its mission, another one might be intercepted AND destroyed. Enemy’s bombers will find no Israeli interceptors, it will result in 6 successful bombing missions! This is what will happen during land combat phase: 1) Israeli artillery attacks enemy rocket artillery. In this case you selected a secondary target because enemy rocket arty is particularly powerful 
and you prefer to concentrate your fire. Your artillery is completely devoted to attack, and it will not save some proficiency for defence. Enemy units are in a balanced stance, and so have some chances to repel your attacks. 2) Enemy rocket artillery attacks your helicopters. The enemy has a balanced stance but your helicopter don’t! they don’t have any chance to repel an attack so any unit hit is lost! Fortunately in phase 1 some enemy rocket artillery might have been destroyed. 3) Your infantry attacks enemy rocket artillery again. They have a balanced stance, as the enemy 4) Enemy helicopters attack Israeli tanks. You’re lucky: the enemy has chosen a defensive stance, so it has no proficiency to spend for attack! 5) Friendly rocket artillery attacks enemy helicopters. In this case your units are completely devoted to attack but enemy units are completely defensive. Notice the chances of attack: each of your rocket artillery in such a stance has 97% percent of hit, while enemy unis will have 50% chances of surival in case of hit. 6) Enemy infantry attacks your rocket artillery. Notice that enemy units are again in defensive position, so actually they’ll score no hit anyway. Even if they were more aggressive, consider that your rocket arty has already moved, so any loss would be relatively less important. 7) Israeli tanks attack enemy artillery. In this case a balanced unit against a unit in defensive position: you have 30% chances of hit, while the enemy has 25% chances of survival. You’ll not going to destroy a lot of artillery! 8) Enenmy artillery against friendly infantry: the enemy is in defensive position and so will not actually attack. 9) Friendly helicopters against enemy tanks. Your helos have an offensive position, while enemy units are balanced: you will score some hit, as the enemy only has 16% chances of survival for every unit hit, and you have 46% chances of hit 10) Enemy tanks attack Israely artillery; they do so in balanced stance, while Israeli artillery spent all proficiency for attack: every enenmy hit will result in a lost unit!
The order of battle and troops dispositions determine the outcome of the battle: place your units with care and always try to discover enemy plans even if this is quite expensive. Place particular attention to air units: you saw in this case that enemy kept a defensive attitude for land units, while it exploited its air superiority to inflict significant losses through its bombers.
3.3 - MOVEMENT OF TROOPS Troops can be moved back and forth between the fronts and the mobile reserve, which is an imaginary collection of strategic points in the middle of the fronts and in Israel, where units are not yet entangled in real fighting and remain at disposal to be quickly moved. The mobile reserve is a military concept that can be applied at any scale, everytime a bunch of units occupies a more or less central region equidistant from every other point in the front, so that it can respond to an attack performed in any point of the front with the same average travel time. At the operational and strategic level, an army that occupies the region in the middle of two opposite enemy armies can attack each of them separately thus having more favourable odds than if it had to fight against the two them together. Also, a country surrounded by enemies can exploit its central position to fight each of them separately as well. There are abundant examples in history of the successful application of this concept. You can't move a whole army in the same time: the quantity of troops that can be moved in one turn is determined by those troops' proficiency. A poorly trained 
infantry can only send a few soldiers on the battlefield in order. On the other hand a trainded infantry is a perfect machine that can be deployed quickly. So every turn, for every unit, you'll have a fixed amount of units you can move to and from the battlefield, these movement points decrease whenever you move troops from the mobile reserve to the front, but you’ll not lose movement points when moving back units from a front back to the mobile reserve. Given the we-go nature of the game, what you issue each turn are just movement orders, the actual movement happens in the order execution phase which is beyond your control. That means if you issued a deploy order of 15 troops your movement point will decrease of 15, but you can always change your mind and retire the order for, let's say 5 troops: at this point you'll have 5 movement points still at disposal. Here's a practical example: 1) We are considering the deployment at the Egyptian front, this is the initial situation: troops in the mobile reserve: 30 troops deployed at the Egyptian front: 10 troops in the "parking slot" of the Egyptian front: 0 movement points: 32 2) You issue the deploy order for 10 troops, the new situation is: troops in the mobile reserve: 30-10 = 20 troops deployed at the Egyptian front: 10+10 = 20 troops in the "parking slot" of the Egyptian front: 0 movement points: 32-10 = 22 3) You change your mind, and you decide not only to retire those reinforcements but also to retire some of the troops already present. You'll retire a total of 12 units, this is what happens with the first 10 of them: troops in the mobile reserve: 20+10 = 30 troops deployed at the Egyptian front: 20-10 = 10 troops in the "parking slot" of the Egyptian front: 0 movement points: 22+10 = 32 4) This is what happens when you retire the remaining two of them: troops in the mobile reserve: 30+2 = 32 troops deployed at the Egyptian front: 10-2 = 8 troops in the "parking slot" of the Egyptian front: 2 movement points: 32-0 = 32 You’ve got 2 units in the parking slot for Egypt, that means those troops can be moved without spending movement points: you followed the mechanism you saw that those 2 units were part of the army already deployed at the Egyptian front, so you can issue the order to retire them at not cost (retiring units is costfree), plus you can simply cancel this order and it will be as if nothing happened. 5) Again, you change your mind: you think that 15 troops were adequate for the Egyptian front, so you move back two units to the front. troops in the mobile reserve: 32-2 = 30 troops deployed at the Egyptian front: 8+2 = 10 troops in the "parking slot" of the Egyptian front: 2-2 = 0 movement points: 32-0 = 32 The two units moved from the parking slot, thus not touching your movement points. If at this point you decided to move more units they'd be taken from the mobile reserve, thus spending movement points.
For one moment let’s go back to point 4, just after you retired two units from those deployed in Egypt. There’s an emergency on the Syrian front, so you must send there as many troops as you can. You can send 32 units from the mobile reserve, you’ll spend all your movement points because no-one of the troops in the mobile reserve already came from Syria. troops in the mobile reserve: 32-32 = 0 troops deployed at the Syrian front: 32+0 = 32 troops in the "parking slot" of the Syrian front: 0 movement points: 32-32 = 0
3.4 – VICTORY AND DEFEAT Wars can be won or lost in two different ways: between Arab countries a war is won if a country has scored 3 hits against 0 of the enemy OR if it has scored two hits more than the enemy after scoring at least 5 hits. For example, if Syria and Jordan are 3-0 Syria wins; if they're 3-1 war goes on. If they are 5-3 or 6-4 or 7-5 etc. Syria wins, if they are 5-4 or 6-5 etc. war goes on. Keep an eye on the newspapers reporting the scores of Arab wars! For wars between Arab countries and Israel you have the check the total firepower deployed remaining at the end of the combat phase: the winner is the country deploying more than 5 times the firepower of the enemy. For example, in a war between Syria and Israel, if at the end of the combat phase Israel has deployed 7501 vs. 1500 Israel wins! If it has deployed 7500 vs. 1500 war goes on. Keep an eye on the total firepower figures in the main map!
Israel is a democracy and your power as a prime minister is not infinite. Even if you have the popular mandate to lead the nation you're still limited by the controls of the press, of the opposition inside and outside the parliament (think about religious groups or labour unions), and by your persistent wish, as a politician, to please anyone to have anyone's vote. Not to mention the material limits to your action: your time is limited, you can't be everywhere, and even if you have precious co-workers and aiders there's many things you simply don't have time to do. Your aiders are subject to the same limitations. Plus, since we are talking about politicians, don't forget your cabinet is made of people seeking personal power, they'll help you only as long as doing so is consistent with their interest. Such human deficiencies can hamper your efforts much more than Egyptian tanks. This is modeled in the game with "policy tokens" which simply are the maximum number of decisions you can take each turn. When you have used all the tokens for a given turn, you must either change your plans or renounce to do more.
4.1.1 - MISHAPS Sh*t happens, either to your party or the opposition. If it happens to you the extra pressure from the newspapers and the public opinion will make your government have less powers and so less policy tokens, depending on the gravity of what's happened. If otherwise it's the opposition to be in troubles your party will make a profit out of it and it will result in more freedom of actions and thus in more tokens. Mishaps can also happen elsewhere, but they'll still have consequences on your freedom of action. Don't worry, newspapers will keep you informed about mishaps.
4.2 – LEADERSHIP Leadership quality and style often has a strong influence upon the fate of a nation. Leaders are human beings, subject to all the weaknesses and under constant extreme pressure from the situation they must control. Different leaders reaact in different ways: there's 5 types of leadership in the game, from the weakest to the strongest, where do they differ? First of all a strong leader will every turn be able to combat the oppositions, a weak one will make them stronger thanks to its ineptitude, so be careful when playing with a country's oppositions. Relations between arab countries and Israel will change depending on a mix of public opinion and leadership: public opinion can orient foreign policy, but a strong leader will not care about it, while a weak leader will be prone to every influence, so a weak leader will let relations with Israel go where the public opinion want, this must be taken into account when trying to adjust relations. The biggest differences are in diplomatic relations, when deciding whether to declare war or to propose alliances etc.: a strong leader will be more concerned about actual different military power than relations, he will not be influenced by public opinion nor he will care of honouring alliances if it is too dangerous; also a skilled leader will be much more careful in improving or disrupting relations: everytime you improve relations with country A you risk to disrupt relations with country B if it has bad relations with A; a skilled leader gives more importance to the whole picture. When deciding the order of battle for a smart leader not having the initiative will be an incentive to an aggressive attitude.
As I said in the preface, I didn't make the 3d models you see in the game, so here's the credits. I tried to contact the authors and seek their official authorization. I'm ready to remove the models if the authors disagree on their use.
Infantry, tank and rocket artillery models: by [email protected], from Artillery, helicopter, fighter and bomber models: from In the game there's code made by others and that I used under previous authorization “Loader” by Jochen Kranzer, Flag shader by Diego, The main boards have been made from Nasa srtm/blue marble data.

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